By Charles R. Krahmalkov
This quantity comprises the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It comprises examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to carry to existence the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that annoying and point reference of a given type of the verb is basically a functionality of syntax, now not morphology.
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Additional info for A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
944, 946) and dubyr dubxr in Neo-Punic (Poen. 936). It is possible that full reduction of the vowel in the active participle was morphophonemic, for such is the case in the plural active participle of verba Illgem. 3 GRR gurer. Such reduction is characteristic of verba Illgem. g. 'LL calel ("enters") but plural 'LLYN 'allin. 4a-6. Propretonic: In the Qal infinitive Attested in Punic/Neo-Punic Poen. 945, 935 liful liful < lifaol (LP'L "to do") and Punic Poen. 948 l i m u r llmur < limor < liamor (VMR "to say").
The Original Short Vowels The short vowels of Phoenician and Punic are the reflexes of the original three short vowels of Semitic: /a i u/. As in Hebrew, the short vowels in Phoenician came each to have two phonologically distinct forms: (i) qualitatively short and (ii) qualitatively long. The qualitatively long variety of these vowels fell together to some ex- tent with the original three long vowels and the two contracted diphthongs. la. Reflexes of Canaanite a Original short a in a closed unstressed syllable had the reflex i or e\ this sound change is normative of Phoenician-Punic phonology and extremely well attested: CIL viii 19121-3 iddir 'iddir < 'addir ("great," in the divine name Baliddir); Pu Poen.
In a closed unstressed syllable, original short i was also pronounced e or i: Pu Poen. 1002 s e m sem ("name," unstressed construct form); Poen. 948 sibti sibti ("his residence"); NPu Poen. 934 y n n o c h o t h (h)innokdt ("here"); IRT877A s e m sem ("name," unstressed construct form); Poen. 937 y t h e m Httim ("to/with him"). In a stressed syllable, the vowel was qualitatively longer [ee], as suggested by its representation by r| in the Pi'el suffixing verb
A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik) by Charles R. Krahmalkov